Retention and disclosure of location information and location identifiers OTT content and communication services
This article describes how Australia’s metadata retention and disclosure regime addresses the retention and disclosure of location information and location identifiers by locally licensed telecommunications service providers and those that do not require a licence to operate in Australia. The article specifically looks at over the-top-content and communication services. The retention and disclosure duties are described in contrast to the powers of the law enforcement agencies to access and use location information from free online social networking services, whereas the law seeks to restrict the retention and thereby the disclosure of location information in respect of over the-top-content and communication services that are not provided by the licensed or unlicensed telecommunications service provider. The paper argues the retention limitations in respect of over the-top-content and communication services are undermined by the actions of the agencies to harvest location information and conduct big data analytics. Similarly, so does the discretion granted to the telecommunications service provider to retain location information in respect of over the-top-content and communication services, provided by a third party content service provider and then be required to disclose it, without any additional safeguards. The actions of the agencies and the discretion granted to the telecommunications companies undermine privacy protections.
Abbas, R., Michael, K., Michael, M. G., & Nicholls, R. (2013). Sketching and validating the location-based services (LBS) regulatory framework in Australia. Computer Law & Security Review, 29, 576, 585, 587.
ACMA. (2015). Communications report 2014–15. Retrieved from Canberra: http://www.acma.gov.au/~/media/Research%20and%20Analysis/Report/pdf/ACMA%20Communications%20report%202014-15%20pdf.pdf
ACMA. (2016, 26 September 2016). Carriers & carriage service providers. Retrieved from http://www.acma.gov.au/Industry/Telco/Carriers-and-service-providers/Licensing/carriers-carriage-providers-licensing-i-acma
AFP. (2016). Freedom of information request. Australia: Commonwealth of Australia Retrieved from https://www.righttoknow.org.au/request/1498/response/5643/attach/2/Decision%20letter%20and%20documents%202016%20324%20reduced.pdf.
AGD, A. G. D. (2015). Data Retention Frequently Asked Questions for Industry. Canberra: Attorney General Department Retrieved from https://www.ag.gov.au/NationalSecurity/DataRetention/Documents/DataRetentionIndustryFAQS.pdf.
AMTA. (2010). Amta guidelines location service providers for the use of mobile technology to provide passive location‐based services in australia. In AMTA (Ed.), (pp. 5, 9, ). Sydney: AMTA.
Bell, P., & Congram, M. (2014). Communication Interception Technology (CIT) and Its Use in the Fight against Transnational Organised Crime (TOC) in Australia: A Review of the Literature. International Journal of Social Science Research, 2(1), 46-66.
Brandis, G. (2015). Telecommunications (Interception And Access) Amendment (Data Retention) Bill 2015 Revised Explanatory Memorandum. Canberra: THE PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Retrieved from http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/legislation/ems/r5375_ems_ac4732e1-5116-4d8f-8de5-0ead3828012c/upload_pdf/501754%20Revised%20EM.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%22legislation/ems/r5375_ems_ac4732e1-5116-4d8f-8de5-0ead3828012c%22.
Clarke, R., & Wigan, M. (2011). You are where you’ve been: the privacy implications of location and tracking technologies. Journal of Location Based Services, 5(3-4), 138–155. doi:10.1080/17489725.2011.637969
Cuijpers, C., & Pekárek, M. (2011). The regulation of location-based services: challenges to the European Union data protection regime. Journal of Location Based Services, 5(3-4), 223-241. doi:10.1080/17489725.2011.637081
ETSI. (2016a). Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Numbering, addressing and identification (pp. 22, 24, 25). Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE: ETSI.
ETSI. (2016b). Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM);Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS);LTE; Functional stage 2 description of Location Services (LCS) (3GPP TS 23.271 version 13.0.0 Release 13) (pp. 12, 13,14,15,16,17,20,21,22,25,27,29,33,37,45,137,138-143, 145-154,). Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE: ETSI.
Fair, P. (2016, 31 May 2016) Research Interview/Interviewer: Author.
Gibson, S. (2004). Open source intelligence. The RUSI Journal, 149(1), 16-22. doi:10.1080/03071840408522977
Keenan, M. (2016). Investing in innovation for our law enforcement elite [Press release]. Retrieved from file:///D:/Users/z5025119/Downloads/160615%20Minister%20for%20Justice%20-%20Media%20release%20-%20Investing%20in%20innovation%20for%20our%20law%20enforcement%20elite.pdf
Li, G. (2015). Regulating over-the-top services in Australia – from universal service obligation scheme to OTT regulation International Journal of Private Law, 8(1), 30-39.
Michael, G. E. K., & Michael, M. G. (2011). The social and behavioural implications of location-based services. Journal of Location Based Services, 5(3-4), 121-137. doi: 10.1080/17489725.2011.642820
Nicholls, R., & Rowland, M. (2008a). Lost in transcription: the Australian regime for interception of, and access to, communications content and metadata. Paper presented at the Communications Policy and Research Forum 2008, Sydney. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237011543_Lost_in_transcription_the_Australian_regime_for_interception_of_and_access_to_communications_content_and_metadata
Nicholls, R., & Rowland, M. (2008b). Regulating the use of telecommunications location data by Australian law enforcement agencies. Criminal Law Journal, 32(6), 343-350.
Official Committee Hansard Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Amendment (Data Retention) Bill 2014, House of Representatives. 1-46 (2014).
Official Committee Hansard Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Amendment (Data Retention) Bill 2015, House of Representatives. 1-99 (2015).
Parliament, E. (2015). Over-the-Top (OTTs) players: Market dynamics and policy challenges. (IP/A/IMCO/FWC/2013-046/). Belgium: EU Parliament Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2015/569979/IPOL_STU(2015)569979_EN.pdf.
Participant, T. E. (2016, 3 June 2016) Research Interview/Interviewer: Author.
Rodrick, S. (2009). Accessing telecommunications data for national security and law enforcement purposes. Federal Law Review, 37, 391.
Stanton, J. (2016, 8 July 2016) Chief Executive Officer/Interviewer: Author.
Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act, § 5, 172-181, 183,184, 176A, 180A-180N, 180X, 187A-187AA, 114 Stat. (Commonwealth of Australia 1979 25 October 1979).
Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Amendment (Data Retention) Act, § Schedule 1, 185E, 187A, 187AA, 187A(4)(e), 187BA, 187F, 187C, 187LA; Schedule 3, Part 3-5, 186J, 4-9, (2015 13 April 2015).
Telecommunications Act (Cth), § 7,15, 275A, 276,277,279, 280, 291A, 302A, 47 Stat. (1997 22 April 1997).
Telstra. (2014). Part H – BigPond Mobile Services (previously known as Telstra Active or WAP), 5,39-42, . Retrieved from www.telstra.com.au website: https://www.telstra.com.au/content/dam/tcom/personal/consumer-advice/pdf/consumer/infoservices.pdf
Views: Abstract - 316 PDF - 1
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2017 Australian Journal of Telecommunications and the Digital Economy
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.