An Energy Efficient Receiver-based Flooding Scheme Using 1-Hop Neighbours Geographical Information for MANETs

Main Article Content

Duy Ngoc Pham
Dac Quynh Mi Nguyen
Hyunseung Choo

Keywords

flooding scheme, receiver-based, full delivery, group forwarding, ad hoc networks

Abstract

Flooding is a fundamental, critical, and indispensable operation to support various applications and protocols in wireless ad hoc networks. The traditional flooding scheme generates excessive redundant packet retransmissions, causing contention and packet collisions, and ultimately wasting limited bandwidth and energy. Some recent flooding schemes that avoid those problems have been studied. They can achieve local optimality and have lower computational complexity. However, drawbacks limit the efficiency of these schemes. In this paper, we propose an efficient flooding protocol that minimizes flooding traffic, leveraging location information of 1-hop neighbor nodes. Our scheme is receiver-based; it does not piggyback any neighbor information. We prove theoretically that the proposed scheme achieves 100 percent deliverability. Simulation shows our scheme to be highly efficient. It consumes less energy, reduces the number of forwarding nodes almost to that of the benchmark, but maintains a high delivery ratio.

Abstract 45 | 152-Article Text-PDF Downloads 4

References

Abolhasan, M., Wysocki, T. and Dutkiewicz, E. (2004). ‘A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks’, Ad Hoc Networks, vol.2, no.1, pp.1-22.
Cai, Y., Hua, K.A. and Phillips, A. (2005). ‘Leveraging 1-hop Neighborhood Knowledge for Efficient Flooding in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks’, Proc. of IEEE 24th Int’l Conf. on Performance, Computing, and Communications, pp.7-9.
CMU. (n.d.). Wireless Code from the UCB Daedelus and CMU Monarch Projects and Sun Microsystems, The Network Simulator, http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns.
Dai, F. and Wu, J. (2004). ‘An Extended Localized Algorithm for Connected Dominating Set Formation in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks’, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol.15, no.10, pp.908-920.
Getting, I. (1993). ‘The Global Positioning System’, IEEE Spectrum, vol.30, no.12, pp.36-47.
Haas, J. (1997). ‘A New Routing Protocol for the Reconfigurable Wireless Networks’, Proc. of IEEE 6th Int'l Conf. on Universal Personal Communications, pp.562-566.
Ho, C., Obraczka, K., Tsudik, G. and Viswanath, K. (1999). ‘Flooding for Reliable Multicast in Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks’, Proc. of the Int’l Workshop on Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Communication, pp.64-71.
Khabbazian, M. and Bhargava, V.K. (2008). ‘Localized Broadcasting with Guaranteed Delivery and Bounded Transmission Redundancy’, IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.57, no.8, pp.1072-1086.
Ko, Y.B. and Vaidya, N.H. (2000). ‘Location-Aided Routing (LAR) in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks’, Wireless Networks, vol.6, no.4, pp.307-321.
Langendone, K. and Reijers, N. (2003). ‘Distributed Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Quantitative Comparison’, Computer Networks, vol.43, no.4, pp.499-518.
Le, T.D. and Choo, H. (2008a). ‘An Efficient Flooding Scheme Based on 2-hop Backward Information in Ad-hoc Networks’, Proc. of IEEE ’08 Int’l Conf. on Communications, pp.2443-2447.
Le, T.D. and Choo, H. (2008b). ‘PIB: An Efficient Broadcasting Scheme Using Predecessor Information in Multi-hop Mobile Ad-hoc Networks’, Proc. of the 2nd Int’l Conf. on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication, pp.419-424.
Liu, H., Jia, X., Wan, P.J., Liu, X. and Yao, F.F. (2007). ‘A Distributed and Efficient Flooding Scheme Using 1-Hop Information in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks’, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol.18, no.5, pp.658-671.
Liu, X., Jia, X., Liu, H. and Feng, L. (2007). ‘A Location Aided Flooding Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks’, Proc. of the 3rd Int’l Conf. on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks, pp.302-313.
Lou, W. and Wu, J. (2004). ‘Double-Covered Broadcast (DCB): A Simple Reliable Broadcast Algorithm in MANETs’, Proc. of the 23rd Annual Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, pp.2084-2095.
Ni, S., Tseng, Y., Chen, Y. and Sheu, J. (1999). ‘The Broadcast Storm Problem in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network’, Proc. of ACM/IEEE 5th Int’l Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp.151-162.
Perkins, C.E. (2001). Ad Hoc Networking, Addison-Wesley Professional, Boston.
Perkins, C.E., Royer, E.M. and Das, S. (2003) ‘Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing’, Internet experimental RFC 3561.
Pham, N.D. and Choo, H. (2008). ‘Energy Efficient Expanding Ring Search for Route Discovery in MANETs’, Proc. of IEEE ’08 Int’l Conf. on Communications, pp.3002-3006.
Qayyum, A., Viennot, L. and Laouiti, A. (2002). “Multipoint Relaying for Flooding Broadcast Messages in Mobile Wireless Networks’, Proc. of the 35th Annual Hawaii Int’l Conf. on System Sciences, pp.3866-3875.
Rendong, B. and Singhal, M. (2006). ‘DOA: DSR over AODV Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks’, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.5, no.10, pp.1403-1416.
Sinha, P., Sivakumar, R. and Bharghavan, V. (2001). ‘Enhancing Ad hoc Routing with Dynamic Virtual Infrastructures’, Proc. of the 20th Annual Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, pp.1763-1772.
Stojmenovic, I., Seddigh, M. and Zunic, J. (2002). ‘Dominating Sets and Neighbor Elimination Based Broadcasting Algorithms in Wireless Networks’, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol.13, no.1, pp.14-25.
Tseng, Y., Ni, S. and Shih, E.Y. (2001). ‘Adaptive Approaches to Relieving Broadcast Storms in a Wireless Multihop Mobile Ad hoc Networks’, Proc. of the 21st Int’l Conf. on Distributed Computing Systems, pp.481-488.
Wan, P., Alzoubi, K. and Frieder, O. (2004). ‘Distributed Construction of Connected Dominating Set in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks’, Mobile Networks and Applications, vol.9, no.2, pp.141-149.
Wu, J. and Li, H. (1999). ‘On Calculating Connected Dominating Set for Efficient Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks’, Proc. of the Int’l Workshop on Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Communications, pp.7-14.