Australian Wholesale Telecommunications Reforms

Main Article Content

Mark A Gregory http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4631-6468

Keywords

telecommunications, wholesale, National Broadband Network, Policy, Regulation

Abstract

The Australian telecommunications market has been reshaped with the introduction of the National Broadband Network (NBN), arguably a short-term renationalisation of the fixed-access telecommunications infrastructure. The NBN rollout commenced in 2009 and is expected to be completed by 2021. The telecommunications market has evolved rapidly as the NBN has taken shape and it is anticipated that the telecommunications industry will seek a period of certainty following the NBN’s completion. This paper considers what the government of the day should do with the NBN after the NBN is built and fully operational in 2022. It discusses four options for the ownership of NBN Co beyond 2022 and describes arguments for and against each option. Telecommunications provides an essential service, is central to the nation’s participation in the global digital economy, and the management of telecommunications infrastructure is a national priority.

Abstract 396 | 155-Article Text-PDF Downloads 12

References

AAP. (2007). “Sol resumes broadband hostilities”. AAP. The Age. Fairfax Media. 14 May 2007. Retrieved from https://www.theage.com.au/news/business/sol-resumes-broadband-hostilities/2007/05/14/1178995053432.html
ABC. (2014). “Telstra boss David Thodey calls for budget certainty”. ABC PM. 14 August 2014. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2014/s4067290.htm
ABC. (2016a). “Telstra dividends threatened by $2-3 billion post-NBN earnings gap: Moody's”. ABC News Online. 28 July 2016. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-07-28/telstra-faces-2-3-billion-dollar-earnings-gap/7668454
ABC. (2016b). “Fact check: Has Australia's internet speed dropped from 30th to 60th in the world under the Coalition?” ABC Fact Check. 22 June 2016. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-06-21/fact-check-australias-internet-speed-rank/7509352
ABC. (2018). “Telstra hit with ratings downgrade over 'weak profitability' as competitors win market share”. ABC News Online. 28 May 2018. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-05-28/telstra-s&p-ratings-downgrade/9807476
ABS. (2018). “8153.0 Internet Activity, Australia December 2017”. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 3 April 2018. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/8153.0
ACCC. (2014a). “Domestic transmission capacity service declaration 2013-2014”. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Australian Government. 28 March 2014. Retrieved from https://www.accc.gov.au/regulated-infrastructure/communications/transmission-services-facilities-access/domestic-transmission-capacity-service-declaration-2013-2014/final-decision
ACCC. (2014b) “ACCC submission to the Independent Cost Benefit Analysis Review of Regulation first issues framing paper”, 14 March 2014, p. 4.
ACCC. (2017). “Solving the multi-technology puzzle: The ACCC’s perspective”. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Australian Government. 17 November 2014. Retrieved from https://www.accc.gov.au/speech/solving-the-multi-technology-puzzle-the-accc%E2%80%99s-perspective
ACCC. (2018a). “Australian Competition and Consumer Commission”. Australian Government. 5 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.accc.gov.au/
ACCC. (2018b). “Communications sector market study final report”. Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Australian Government. 5 April 2018. Retrieved from https://www.accc.gov.au/publications/communications-sector-market-study-final-report
ACMA. (2018). “Australian Communications and Media Authority”. Australian Government. 5 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.acma.gov.au/
Adhikari, S. (2018). “Telstra ordered to take down misleading ‘Unlimited’ ad”. The Australian. News Limited. 23 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/technology/telstra-ordered-to-take-down-misleading-unlimited-ad/news-story/0e58e02270ff7b44f4cf3c39edfe89e9
AMTA. (2018). “Australian Mobile Telecommunications Association”. 5 May 2018. Retrieved from http://www.amta.org.au/
Baker, R., McKenzie, N. (2017) “First criminal charges in NewSat scandal”. Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax. 19 December 2017. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/business/first-criminal-charges-in-newsat-scandal-20171219-h072e2.html
Bartholomeusz, S. (2006). “Sol and Samuel point fingers while broadband falls behind”. Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. 1 December 2006. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/news/business/sol-and-samuel-point-fingers-while-broadband-falls-behind/2006/11/30/1164777720863.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1
Batt, R., Strausser, M. (1998). “Labor Market Outcomes of Deregulation in Telecommunications Services”. Proceedings of the 50th annual meeting of the Industrial Relations Research Association. pp. 126-134. Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association.
Biddington, M. (2018). “Changes to broadband arrangements to be considered by Parliament”. Parliament of Australia. 26 March 2018. Retrieved from https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/FlagPost/2018/March/Telecommunications_Legislation_to_pass_through_the_Parliament
CA. (2018). “Communications Alliance”. 5 May 2018. Retrieved from http://www.commsalliance.com.au/
CCC. (2018). “Competitive Carriers Coalition”. 5 May 2018. Retrieved from http://www.ccc.asn.au/
Chorus. (2016). “The Case for 100 Mbps (or more…)”. Chorus. 20 June 2016. Retrieved from https://blog.chorus.co.nz/the-case-for-100mbps-or-more/
Clark, A. (2015). “Malcolm Turnbull in talks to sell NBN to large telcos”. Financial Review. Fairfax Media. 4 December 2015. Retrieved from http://www.afr.com/business/telecommunications/turnbull-in-talks-to-sell-nbn-to-large-telcos-20151204-glfy5d
DCA. (2013). “Terms of Reference for the NBN Panel of Experts”. Department of Communications and the Arts. Government of Australia. 12 December 2013. Retrieved from https://www.communications.gov.au/departmental-news/terms-reference-nbn-panel-experts
DCA. (2014). “Statement of Expectations”. Department of Communications and the Arts. Government of Australia. 24 August 2016. Retrieved from https://www.communications.gov.au/publications/nbnstatementofexpectations
DCA. (2018a). “Department of Communications and the Arts”. Government of Australia. 5 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.communications.gov.au/
DCA. (2018b). “National Broadband Network”. Department of Communications and the Arts. Government of Australia. 5 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.communications.gov.au/what-we-do/internet/national-broadband-network
Dodson, L. (2005). “Competitors to get a slice in Telstra privatisation”. Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. 12 August 2005. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/news/business/rivals-to-get-a-slice-in-telstra-selloff/2005/08/11/1123353442607.html
Duckett, C. (2016). “Infrastructure Australia calls for full benefits of NBN but skirts technology choices”. ZDNet. 17 February 2016. Retrieved from https://www.zdnet.com/article/infrastructure-australia-calls-for-full-benefits-of-nbn-but-skirts-technology-choices/
Duke, J. (2017). “'We're not the police': NBN chief Bill Morrow reluctant to share data about speeds”. Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. 23 November 2017. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/business/companies/were-not-the-police-nbn-chief-bill-morrow-reluctant-to-share-data-about-speeds-20171123-gzr7lb.html
Duke, J. (2018). “NBN admits three in four FTTN customers won't get top speeds”. Canberra Times. Fairfax Media. 17 January 2018. Retrieved from https://www.canberratimes.com.au/business/nbn-admits-three-in-four-fttn-customers-wont-get-top-speeds-20180117-h0jeo0.html
Durie, J. (2017). “Bill Morrow shrugs off retailers’ calls for NBN pricing certainty”. The Australian. News Limited. 10 October 2017. Retrieved from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/opinion/john-durie/bill-morrow-shrugs-off-retailers-calls-for-nbn-pricing-certainty/news-story/1f123b8d0144bb1b26524f452ac38b70
Gerrand, P. (2004). “Revisiting the Structural Separation of Telstra”, Telecommunications Journal of Australia, Vol 54, Spring issue, 2004, pp. 15-28.
Gerrand, P. (2017). “2004 Structural Separation”. Australian Journal of Telecommunications and the Digital Economy, Vol. 5, No. 4, Article 5. http://doi.org/10.18080/ajtde.v5n4.5
Gothe-Snape, J. (2018). “NBN fixed wireless blowing out bush broadband bill as Government pins hopes on fixed-line levy”. ABC News Online. 1 June 2018. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-06-01/nbn-fixed-wireless-congestion-upgrade-delay/9770802
Gregory, M.A. (2012). “Telstra’s post-NBN future”. The Australian. News Limited. 18 October 2012. Retrieved from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/business-spectator/telstras-postnbn-future/news-story/4396363c06f1834ad2e5ff5a5ffccf87
Gregory, M.A. (2013). “Will the NBN be 'affordable' without Huawei?” The Australian, News Limited. 2 October 2013. Retrieved from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/business-spectator/will-the-nbn--be-affordable-without-huawei/news-story/3d37fc94774d84e0d001eeecbc672352
Gregory, M.A. (2014a). “Can Telstra save the NBN?” The Australian. News Limited. 20 March 2014. Retrieved from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/business-spectator/can-telstra-save-the-nbn-/news-story/1d2fa0ff7d3a5828b8bf28229f223379
Gregory, M.A. (2014b). “NBN – ageing copper network and structural separation”. John Menadue – Pearls and Irritations. 11 February 2014. Retrieved from https://johnmenadue.com/mark-gregory-nbn-ageing-copper-network-and-structural-separation/
Gregory, M.A. (2014c). “Why the NBN's cost-benefit analysis is flawed on arrival”. The Australian. News Limited. 18 September 2014. Retrieved from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/business-spectator/why-the-nbns-costbenefit-analysis-is-flawed-on-arrival/news-story/dbc280971aec94ceb18ac44e211d18be
Gregory, M.A. (2015a). “The Rationale for Universal Access to Digital Services”. Australian Journal of Telecommunications and the Digital Economy. Vol. 3 No. 4. pp. 166-184. DOI https://doi.org/10.18080/ajtde.v3n4.45
Gregory, M.A. (2015b). “Why the NBN can do without fibre-to-the-node”. The Australian. News Limited. 10 April 2015. Retrieved from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/business-spectator/why-the-nbn-can-do-without-fibretothenode--/news-story/29215a9c2b4c2d0cb904326283887f64
Gregory, M.A. (2016a). “What the government doesn’t want you to know about the NBN”. John Menadue – Pearls and Irritations. 19 April 2016. Retrieved from https://johnmenadue.com/mark-gregory-what-the-government-doesnt-want-you-to-know-about-the-nbn/
Gregory, M.A. (2016b). “Labor’s NBN silence”. The Australian. News Corporation. 10 June 2016. Retrieved from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/technology/opinion/labors-nbn-silence/news-story/4c4c8f774c2322654b264089c3c34e9e
Gregory, M.A. (2017a). “Stuck in the NBN slow lane”. The Australian. News Corporation. 25 July 2017. Retrieved from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/inquirer/stuck-in-the-nbn-slow-lane/news-story/540ff6a0d059cb318ad025f5d856f30c
Gregory, M.A. (2017b). “High long-term cost of NBN”. InnovationAus. 17 July 2017. Retrieved from https://www.innovationaus.com/2017/07/High-long-term-cost-of-NBN
Gregory, M.A. (2017c). “Telco security is the new frontier.” InnovationAus. 22 August 2017. Retrieved from https://www.innovationaus.com/2017/08/Telco-security-is-the-new-frontier
Gregory, M.A. (2017d). “Is it time for NBN Co to make fibre-to-the-curb the default option?” The Australian. News Limited. 15 February 2017. Retrieved from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/technology/opinion/is-it-time-for-nbn-co-to-make-fibretothecurb-the-default-option/news-story/6c1938a6a48da2c74743ee939b5e226c
Gregory, M.A. (2017e). “A new broadband levy in another NBN bungle”. John Menadue – Pearls and Irritations. 23 May 2017. Retrieved from https://johnmenadue.com/mark-gregory-a-new-broadband-levy-in-another-nbn-bungle/
Gregory, M.A. (2018a). “Telstra pain linked to NBN”. InnovationAus. 21 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.innovationaus.com/2018/05/Telstra-pain-linked-to-NBN
Gregory, M.A. (2018b). “NBN’s astounding results fail”. InnovationAus. 14 February 2018. Retrieved from https://www.innovationaus.com/2018/02/NBNs-astounding-results-fail
Gregory, M.A. (2018c). “Spooks form a view on TelcoLand”. InnovationAus. 4 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.innovationaus.com/2018/05/Spooks-form-a-view-on-TelcoLand
Hansen, S., & Jones, N. (2017). “New Zealand Telecommunications: The actual situation – legislation and regulations”. Australian Journal of Telecommunications and the Digital Economy, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 83-88. DOI https://doi.org/10.18080/ajtde.v5n3.111
Hausman, J. A., & Taylor, W. E. (2012). "Telecommunications Deregulation." American Economic Review, Vol. 102, No. 3, pp. 386-390. DOI: 10.1257/aer.102.3.386
Hogan, J. (2006). “Trujillo gives Murdoch broad support”. The Age. Fairfax Media. 30 November 2006. Retrieved from https://www.theage.com.au/news/business/trujillo-gives-murdoch-broad-support/2006/11/29/1164777656709.html
Irving, W. (2018). “Establishing a standalone infrastructure business”. Telstra Exchange. Telstra. 20 June 2018. Retrieved from https://exchange.telstra.com.au/establishing-standalone-infrastructure-business/
Kahn, A.E. (1988). The economics of regulation: principles and institutions. MIT Press. Cambridge, USA. ISBN 9780262111294
Kahn, A. E. (2004). Lessons from Deregulation. AEI-Brookings Joint Centre for Regulatory Studies. 2004.
Kahn, A. E. (2007). Network Neutrality. AEI-Brookings Joint Centre for Regulatory Studies. March 2007
Kautsarina, K., Rafizan, O., Setiawan, A., & Sastrosubroto, A. (2017). “Information and Communication Technology Service Industry Development in Indonesia”. Australian Journal of Telecommunications and the Digital Economy, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 50-82. https://doi.org/10.18080/ajtde.v5n3.96
Lattey, R. (2017). “Australia”. King & Wood Mallesons. The International Comparative Legal Guide to: Telecoms, Media & Internet Laws & Regulations 2017. 10th Edition. Publisher Global Legal Group. ISBN 978-1-911367-15-4. Retrieved from http://www.kwm.com/~/media/library/Files/Knowledge/Insights/au/2016/10/12/iclg-telecoms-media-internet-2017-australia.ashx?la=en
MAF. (2017). “Migration Assurance Framework”. Department of Communications and the Arts. Australian Government. 21 August 2017. Retrieved from https://www.communications.gov.au/have-your-say/migration-assurance-framework
McCarthy, M. (2018). “'Arrogant' Australia risks scaring-off foreign investors wanting farmland as new reforms favour local bidders”. ABC News Rural. 3 February 2018. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/news/rural/2018-02-03/australian-real-estate-agents-concern-foreign-investment-reform/9391394
McCormick, J. (1996). "Telecommunications deregulation: an Australian perspective". Information Management & Computer Security. Vol. 4 Issue 3. pp. 39-41. https://doi.org/10.1108/09685229610126986
McDonough, C. (2017). “U.S. Telco Industry History as a Prologue to its Future”. Australian Journal of Telecommunications and the Digital Economy, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 98-112. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.18080/ajtde.v5n2.108
McLaren, G. (2017). “Hong Kong’s Fibre Broadband Market - Busting the Myth of Residential Fibre Broadband always being a Natural Monopoly”. Australian Journal of Telecommunications and the Digital Economy, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 36-49. https://doi.org/10.18080/ajtde.v5n3.117
Melleuish, G. (2000). “A Short History of Australian Liberalism”. Centre for Independent Studies. 16 March 2000. Retrieved from http://www.cis.org.au/publications/occasional-papers/a-short-history-of-australian-liberalism/
Middleton, C. (2017). “An Introduction to Telecommunications Policy in Canada”. Australian Journal of Telecommunications and the Digital Economy, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 97-124. https://doi.org/10.18080/ajtde.v5n4.129
NBN. (2011). National Broadband Network Companies Act 2011. Australian Government. 29 April 2016. Retrieved from https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2016C00381
NBNCO. (2011). “NBN Co and Telstra Sign Binding Definitive Agreements”. NBN Co. 23 June 2011. Retrieved from https://www.nbnco.com.au/corporate-information/media-centre/media-statements/nbn-co-and-telstra-sign-binding-definitive-agreements.html
NBNCO. (2013). “Strategic Review Report”. NBN Co. 12 December 2013. Retrieved from https://www.nbnco.com.au/corporate-information/media-centre/media-statements/strategic-review.html
NBNCO. (2017). “Corporate Plan 2018-21”. NBN Co. August 2017. Retrieved from https://www.nbnco.com.au/corporate-information/about-nbn-co/corporate-plan/corporate-plan.html
NBNCO. (2018a). “NBN Co pushes fibre further and relaunches HFC services”. Media release. NBN Co. 10 April 2018. Retrieved from https://www.nbnco.com.au/corporate-information/media-centre/media-statements/HFC-relaunch-FTTC-expansion.html
NBNCO. (2018b). “NBN Co Q3 2018 results. Financial Reports”. NBN Co. 10 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.nbnco.com.au/corporate-information/about-nbn-co/corporate-plan/financial-reports.html
PC. (2017). “Inquiry into Telecommunications Universal Service Obligation”. Productivity Commission. 19 June 2017. Retrieved from https://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/telecommunications#report
Penn, A. (2017). “Time to end uncertainty over regional investment”. Telstra Corporation. 5 May 2017. Retrieved from https://exchange.telstra.com.au/time-to-end-uncertainty-over-regional-investment/
Rickard, P. (2018). “When will Telstra be a bargain?” NABTrade. National Australia Bank. 19 April 2018. Retrieved from https://www.nabtrade.com.au/investor/insights/latest-news/news/2018/04/when_will_telstrabe
RTR. (2018). “Regional Telecommunications Review”. Department of Communications and the Arts. Australian Government. Retrieved from https://www.communications.gov.au/who-we-are/department/regional-telecommunications-review
Saenz De Miera, O., Rovalo, A., & Morales, R. (2017). “Review of the Mexican Telecommunications Market”. Australian Journal of Telecommunications and the Digital Economy, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 70-91. https://doi.org/10.18080/ajtde.v5n1.84
SECEC. (2017a). Question 175. Senate Estimates Committee on Environment and Communications. Australian Parliament. October 2017. Retrieved from https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Senate_Estimates/eqon
SECEC. (2017b). Evidence by Mr Bill Morrow and Mr Stephen Rue. Senate Estimates Committee on Environment and Communications. Australian Parliament. Hansard pp. 194-223. Retrieved from http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/search/summary/summary.w3p;adv=yes;orderBy=customrank;page=0;query=nbn%20Date%3A24%2F10%2F2017%20Dataset%3Aestimate;resCount=Default
SECEC. (2018). Senate Estimates Committee on Environment and Communications. Australian Parliament. 24 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Senate_Estimates/ec
Smith, P. (2017a). “Government rejects calls to write down $30b NBN investment as Bevan Slattery predicts mobile advances”. Financial Review. Fairfax Media. 17 April 2017. Retrieved from http://www.afr.com/technology/web/nbn/government-rejects-calls-to-write-down-30b-nbn-investment-as-bevan-slattery-predicts-mobile-advances-20170412-gvjl5a
Smith, P. (2017b). “Andy Penn's plan for Telstra to become a global tech giant takes shape”. Australian Financial Review. Fairfax Media. 28 August 2017. Retrieved from https://www.afr.com/technology/andy-penns-plan-for-telstra-to-become-a-global-tech-giant-takes-shape-20170825-gy4e7c
Telstra. (2014). “Telstra Signs revised NBN Definitive Agreements”. Telstra Corporation. 14 December 2014. Retrieved from https://www.asx.com.au/asxpdf/20141215/pdf/42vgkf12mxbyvb.pdf
TIO. (2018). “Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman”. 5 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.tio.com.au/
TLACC. (2018). Telecommunications Legislation Amendment (Competition and Consumer) Bill 2018. Parliament of Australia. 10 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_Legislation/Bills_Search_Results/Result?bId=r5923
TLADB. (2014). Telecommunications Legislation Amendment (Deregulation) Bill 2014. Parliament of Australia. 13 April 2015. Retrieved from https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_LEGislation/Bills_Search_Results/Result?bId=r5367
TPG. (2018). “Media Release: TPG to offer Free Unlimited Mobile Data plan on its Brand New Australian Mobile Network”. TPG Networks. 9 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.tpg.com.au/about/media.php
TRBSCB. (2018). Telecommunications (Regional Broadband Scheme) Charge Bill 2018. Parliament of Australia. 10 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Bills_Legislation/Bills_Search_Results/Result?bId=r5916
Turnbull, M. (2013). “Panel of Experts to conduct cost-benefit analysis of broadband & review NBN regulation”. Ministers for the Department of Communications and the Arts, Government of Australia. 12 December 2013. Retrieved from http://www.minister.communications.gov.au/malcolm_turnbull/news/panel_of_experts_to_conduct_cost-benefit_analysis_of_broadband_and_review_nbn_regulation#.WxIOQEiFNaQ
Turnbull, M. (2014a). “NBN Co and Telstra sign revised Definitive Agreements”. Department of Communication and the Arts, Government of Australia. 14 December 2014. Retrieved from http://www.minister.communications.gov.au/malcolm_turnbull/news/nbn_co_and_telstra_sign_revised_definitive_agreements#.WwU9dEiFNaQ
Turnbull, M. (2014b). “Vertigan panel lays out path to less telecommunications regulation”, Department of Communication and the Arts, Government of Australia. 1 October 2014. Retrieved from http://www.minister.communications.gov.au/malcolm_turnbull/news/vertigan_panel_lays_out_path_to_less_telecommunications_regulation#.WxJpLUiFNaQ
USO. (2018). “Universal Service Obligation”. Department of Communications and the Arts. Australian Government. 5 May 2018. Retrieved from https://www.communications.gov.au/what-we-do/phone/phone-services/universal-service-obligation
Van Onselen, P. (2015). “Embracing small government needs a philosophical shift”. The Australian. News Limited. 21 March 2015. Retrieved from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/opinion/columnists/peter-van-onselen/embracing-small-government-needs-a-philosophical-shift/news-story/8b290b5dd435e21e5b81e9b32a494abb
Viasat. (2017). “Qantas Turns On Fast, Free, Gate-to-Gate In-flight Wi-Fi”. Viasat. 7 April 2017. Retrieved from https://www.viasat.com/news/qantas-turns-fast-free-gate-gate-flight-wi-fi
Whigham, N. (2018). “Broadband start-up completes initial fibre rollout in parts of Melbourne.” News.com.au. News Limited. 19 April 2018. Retrieved from https://www.news.com.au/technology/online/broadband-startup-completes-initial-fibre-rollout-in-parts-of-melbourne/news-story/24ce37c4aa704843abb5b70f5482bcba
Young Liberals. (2018). “We support small government, free enterprise and individual freedom”. Young Liberals NSW Division. 5 May 2018. Retrieved from http://nswyoungliberals.org/